Get a phone that allows a rugged surrounding, as in, immediate surrounding -- OtterBox cases are nice, I got one for my iPhone when the first one just had half the screen stop working...don't even know what drop made that happen.
Fact is, shock-protection built into the hardware is expensive (think Panasonic Toughbook = $$$). A case that stops everything else (oil, water, grime) is relatively inexpensive, and some DO help with the shock by doing the neoprene/plastic shell hybrid (see above: OtterBox).
Cases can be a crap shoot, too, sadly. They aren't cheap, and they are generally so specific to one model of phone that you can never use it twice in a row.
Personally, I think an iPhone in an OtterBox would get through quite a bit, but that phone is overkill for your needs.
The OtterBox website is here: http://www.otterbox.com,
but don't pay full price, check Amazon if you go that route, they are stupid expensive at MSRP.
...and cases on other phones might work, I'm just not as familiar with other phone models.