The sale tax is a regressive type of tax.
However the discrepancy can be mitigated if one also looks at federal income tax in addition to the local and state taxes.
Hardly anyone making less than 50k paid any federal income tax and the brunt of federal taxes are paid by the "wealthy".
I believe there is a bill to be voted creating a "millionaires" tax. Supported by Bill Gates and his dad as well as the unions. Opposed by a lot of others.
One last thing:
Cigarette and alcohol taxes are some of the most regressive taxes since most of the usage of these products are by the lower income levels. That figures quite a lot in the chart in the OP.